By Mas'ud ibn Umar Taftazani
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Extra info for A Commentary on the Creed of Islam
Al-istiqrd* Tech. Terms, is p. the CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE if himself] then, mudri%), it is Objection there is an organ may be raised that the from the perceptive distinct sense perception; otherwise, it is efficient 17 faculty (al- Reason. cause (d-sabab d-muaththir) in kinds of knowledge is Allah, since they all exist through His creation and His bringing them into existence without any impression (ta'thir) being made by the sensory faculty, true narration, and Reason. Reason only apall pears to be a cause, as for instance senses and fire in the case of burning; narration, the former are only instruments and the and as for the method latter a of comprehension.
Terms, p. 304; Wolfson, "Internal Senses," Harv. Theol. ; al-Ghatzali, Maqdfid al-Faldfifa, III, 46 ft. Diet, of Tech. CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE 18 portance to the details of surmises (al-hadsiydt), experiences (al-tajriblyat), immediate perceptions (al-badihtydt) and speculations (al-nazarlydt) 9 and because all these go back to Reason, they made Reason a third cause which knowledge by merely giving attention to or by drawing to itself a surmise or an experience or the arrangement of premises. So they made Reason the cause of knowledge in that we have hunger and thirst, ultimately arrives at that the whole is greater than the part, that the light of the from the sun, that scammony is a although in some matters Reason The senses (al-hawdss) /The laxative, moon that the world is is derived originated, aided by sense perception.
Ahmad Sunn a, a way, b. , Ill, came 120, 145. have many meanings in Islam: Terms, pp. ; Lane, Lexicon, p. 1438. It sometimes means one of the four bases of Islam, that is, that which was the usage in speech or deed or the approved manner of conduct of the Prophet; the other three bases being the Qur'an, the Agreement (ijmd') of the Muslim Community (jamS'a) and Analogy (qiyds). The term is also applied in worcourse, or sec al'Ta'rffat, pp. ; of conduct, to Diet, of Tech. , ship and other rites of Islam to those utterances absolutely prescribed.