By Bruce S. Hall
The mobilization of neighborhood principles approximately racial distinction has been vital in producing, and intensifying, civil wars that experience happened because the finish of colonial rule in the entire nations that straddle the southern fringe of the Sahara wilderness. From Sudan to Mauritania, the racial different types deployed in modern conflicts frequently hearken again to an older background during which blackness will be equated with slavery and non-blackness with predatory and uncivilized banditry. This e-book strains the advance of arguments approximately race over a interval of greater than 350 years in a single vital position alongside the southern fringe of the Sahara wasteland: the Niger Bend in northern Mali. utilizing Arabic files held in Timbuktu, in addition to neighborhood colonial resources in French and oral interviews, Bruce S. corridor reconstructs an African highbrow heritage of race that lengthy predated colonial conquest, and which has persisted to orient inter-African kinfolk ever considering that.
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Additional info for A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600-1960 (African Studies)
5 Gao is mentioned as an important trade center by the ninth-century Arabic chronicler al-Yaʿqubī (d. 7 Independent Songhay-speaking rulers who controlled the eastern Niger Bend were defeated and incorporated into the Mali Empire by the fourteenth century, if not earlier. However, by the end of the fourteenth century, a Songhay-speaking dynasty based at Gao had won its independence from Mali, and in 1433, the Mali Empire lost control of the town of Timbuktu in the western Niger Bend. The creation of the Songhay Empire was the work of Sunni ʿAli Beer (r.
It is just empirically untrue that there was ever a single coherent form of racial thought that could stand as a nominal model for what “real racial thought” is. 12 David Nirenberg, “Race and the Middle Ages: The Case of Spain and Its Jews,” in Rereading the Black Legend: The Discourses of Religious and Racial Difference in the Renaissance Empires, ed. Margaret R. Greer, Walter D. Mignolo, and Maureen Quilligan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 73–4. 13 Two of the clearest examples are Michael Banton, Racial Theories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987) and Ivan Hannaford, Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).
Introduction 19 the variety of producers of colonial knowledge, the models of “invented tradition” are not sufficient for understanding the intellectual histories that lay behind these conceptual changes. ”45 One solution to this problem has been to focus on the role of local intellectuals in formulating and propagating new ideas about ethnicity. Although still giving primary place to the colonial state and its agents as the ultimate instruments that provoked change, attention has been paid to the ways that European constructions of ethnic or tribal categories were taken up by members of these “newly” defined communities in shaping and popularizing them.