A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian (2nd Edition) by Martin Maiden, Cecilia Robustelli

By Martin Maiden, Cecilia Robustelli

This Italian reference grammar presents scholars, lecturers and others attracted to the Italian language with a accomplished, available and jargon-free consultant to the varieties and constitution of Italian.
Whatever their point of information of the language, freshmen of Italian will locate this e-book critical: it offers transparent and distinct reasons of every thing from the main common proof comparable to the relation among spelling and pronunciation, or the varieties of the thing, to extra complicated issues resembling a few of the nuances of the subjunctive. Formal or archaic discourse is extraordinary from casual, daily utilization, and regionalisms also are indicated the place acceptable.
The authors have taken care to make it a simple and illuminating reference instrument: large cross-referencing permits readers to quick locate the knowledge they require, and in addition stimulates them to find new, comparable evidence.

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Additional info for A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian (2nd Edition)

Example text

Furthermore, there are other means besides the telescope available for gathering information about the sun. The astronomer unhesitatingly states that these other methods may be very useful and condones their use, but makes no effort to use them in order to gain further insight. Moreover, when other astronomers present evidence that these other methods have provided, the astronomer either deems them irrelevant, or accepts only the evidence which corroborates the evidence obtained through the telescope.

This illustration is objectionable on two counts. In the case of bones found at an archaeological dig, Kiparsky’s logic is sound. However, this does not imply that negative evidence is irrelevant to the testing of a hypothesis in all fields of research. For example, the claim that cold nuclear fusion had been produced in the laboratory was corroborated by some experiments and refuted by others. In the end, the claim was rejected on the basis of the negative evidence presented. Second, Kiparsky’s argument cannot be logically extended to physics nor to phonology because archaeologists look for evidence of things that used to exist in a given place.

This means that orderings, constraints, and parameters are not real, only the structures and generalizations that they are designed to describe. Although linguistic entities have the potential of being real in the weak sense, their psychological validity has been questioned on a number of different grounds. The first has to do with the truth versus reality issue, which questions the supposition that the best formal analysis of a phenomenon is necessarily a psychologically significant analysis. If the best formal theory is taken to be necessarily real, then there is no way to distinguish between theoretical constructs that may have psychological validity and those that are merely notational artifacts.

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