By M. Y. Han

This e-book provides the fundamental points of relativistic quantum box concept, with minimum use of arithmetic. It covers the advance of quantum box conception from the unique quantization of electromagnetic box to the gauge box idea of interactions between quarks and leptons. geared toward either scientists and non-specialists, it calls for just some rudimentary wisdom of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formula of Newtonian mechanics and a simple realizing of the specified thought of relativity and quantum mechanics.

**Read or Download Story of Light: A Short Introduction to Quantum Theory of Quarks and Leptons PDF**

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**Extra resources for Story of Light: A Short Introduction to Quantum Theory of Quarks and Leptons**

**Sample text**

A new insight was deﬁnitely required to proceed to the next phase in the evolution of theories of particles. Such insight would come from the quantization of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. We will discuss the formalism of the quantization of classical ﬁelds in the next chapter. Suﬃce it to say here that when the radiation ﬁeld (the electromagnetic ﬁeld in the source-free region) was quantized, following the recipe for canonical quantization the quantal structure of such quantized radiation ﬁeld corresponded to photons of Planck and Einstein, the particles of light.

The spin of a particle ﬁnds its rightful place only when we proceed to relativistic quantum mechanics. Particles with half-integer spin — generically called the fermions — such as electrons, protons and neutrons that constitute all known matter obey the relativistic wave equation called the Dirac equation (see below), wherein only the total angular momentum deﬁned as the sum of orbital angular momentum and spin is conserved, whereas in the non-relativistic case the conserved quantity is the orbital angular momentum only.

When quantum mechanics replaced the classical dynamics of Newton, Lagrange and Hamilton, the concept of particle went Equations for Duality 33 through a fundamental revision, from that of a well-deﬁned classical point mass to one of quantum-mechanical wave–particle duality in which it is neither a particle in the classical sense nor a wave in the classical sense, but a new reality in the quantum world that displays both particle-like and wave-like properties. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the probability amplitude for this wave–particle duality is to be determined as solutions of the Schr¨ odinger’s equation and in the fully relativistic case as solutions of the Dirac equation.