Advanced pH Measurement and Control by Gregory K. McMillan

By Gregory K. McMillan

This best-selling publication presents a transparent, concise, and finished view of ways to choose, set up, and keep electrodes, keep watch over valves, and regulate concepts for pH functions serious for product and water caliber within the method undefined. The e-book covers each point of method layout together with the blending and reagent piping specifications which are very important for a winning application.
The crucial suggestions are summarized as key insights and the simplest practices are offered as principles of thumb in the course of the booklet. The rising power of dynamic on-line pH estimators is explored to make latest pH measurements speedier and extra trustworthy. the newest advancements in complex batch keep an eye on, adaptive keep an eye on, linear reagent call for keep watch over, and version predictive keep an eye on are provided to lessen reagent intake and variability.
Этот бестселлер обеспечивает четкое, краткое, и полное представление о том, как выбрать, установить и поддерживать электроды, регулирующие клапаны и стратегию борьбы с измерением рН, решающее значение для качества продукта и воды в обрабатывающей промышленности. Книга охватывает все аспекты проектирования систем, в том числе и требования смешивания реагентов трубопроводов, которые важны для успешного применения. Важнейшие концепции можно резюмировать ключевые идеями и лучшими практиками, представленных в виде эмпирических правил на протяжении всей книги. Возникающие возможности динамического измерения рН изучены, чтобы сделать существующие измерения рН более быстрыми и надежными. Последние события в расширенный контроля, адаптивного управления, линейное управление подачи реагента и модели интеллектуального управления представлены для уменьшения расхода реагентов и изменчивости.

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If the excess charge is negative, the lower pH sea rch limit is increased to the midpoint pH. If the excess is positive, the up per p H search limit is decreased to the mid point pH. This interval halving continues until the interval is less than a specified allowable error. If the pH and concen trations of all but one acid or base in a solution a re known, the unknown acid or base concentratio n can be solved for d irectly from the charge balance equation. The charge balance equation is set up by summ ing the concentratio n in normality units o f all the ions in solution and setting th e sum equal to zero.

Copyrighted material 49 Chapter 2 : The Chemistry A charge balance with its pK a and pK w coeffic ients adjusted for activity and temperature effects is a powerful tool for generating titration curves. Since solutions are neutral, the existence of just one type of ion in solution is not possible. Th us, pH measurement cannot be stated to be a measurement of just th e h ydrogen ion. In water solutions, hydrogen ions will be accompanied by h yd roxyl ions per the ionic product shown in Equation 2-3x.

4 . 5. 6. , "Compu ter Series 158 · PHCALC: A Comp uter Program for Acid ! BaS(-' Equilibrium Ca lcu lations", Journal of Chemical Educat ion, Volume 71 , Num· ber 2, February 1994. 7. , pH and piON Control in Process and Waste Strt'lll/ls, John Wiley an d Sons, 1973. 8. Ga l~t er. Helmuth, pH M easu ft'mm / - Pundamauats, Mflhods, AI'pl ica/ions, lnst rumentation, VCH, 1991. Copyrigilled material Chapter 3: Titration Curves Copyrigllted material Chapter 3 Titration Curves 3-1 . Slippery Slopes The task of a conventional control system to maintain a pH se t point on the steep slope of a titration curve despite upsets is sim ilar to a novice skier trying to stop on an icy expert slope while being buffeted by high w ind s.

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