An Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Marine and by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life

By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technology Assessment Committee

Expanding renewable strength improvement, either in the usa and in a foreign country, has rekindled curiosity within the capability for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) assets to give a contribution to electrical energy new release. those assets derive from ocean tides, waves, and currents; temperature gradients within the ocean; and free-flowing rivers and streams. One degree of the curiosity within the attainable use of those assets for electrical energy iteration is the expanding variety of allows which were filed with the Federal power Regulatory fee (FERC). As of December 2012, FERC had issued four licenses and eighty four initial allows, up from nearly 0 a decade in the past. besides the fact that, each one of these allows are for advancements alongside the Mississippi River, and the particular profit learned from all MHK assets is very small. the 1st U.S. advertisement gridconnected undertaking, a tidal undertaking in Maine with a ability of lower than 1 megawatt (MW), is at the moment providing a fragment of that strength to the grid and is because of be absolutely put in in 2013.

As a part of its overview of MHK assets, DOE requested the nationwide learn Council (NRC) to supply designated reviews. In reaction, the NRC shaped the Committee on Marine Hydrokinetic power expertise overview. As directed in its assertion of job (SOT), the committee first built an intervening time file, published in June 2011, which all in favour of the wave and tidal source tests (Appendix B). the present record includes the committee's review of all 5 of the DOE source different types in addition to the committee's reviews at the total MHK source review technique. This precis makes a speciality of the committee's overarching findings and conclusions relating to a conceptual framework for constructing the source exams, the aggregation of effects right into a unmarried quantity, and the consistency throughout and coordination among the person source checks. reviews of the person source overview, additional dialogue of the sensible MHK source base, and overarching conclusions and suggestions are defined in An evaluate of the U.S. division of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic source Assessment.

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S. electricity consumption (EIA, 2012). While national-scale resource assessments may be useful for identifying geographic regions of interest for a particular MHK extraction technology, the practical resource will depend on a host of technical and environmental factors and may be significantly lower than what the assessments indicate is regionally or locally available. html). It is not possible to predict the practical MHK resource from national resource assessments until the constraints posed by both the technical extraction filters and the practical socioeconomic and environmental filters are better quantified for each of the specific resources.

The methodology used precludes providing site-specific information to such developers. , shoaling, refraction, diffraction). The wave resource assessment group acknowledges that its results are not accurate in the shallower waters of the inner continental shelf, and as such the shallowest water depths analyzed are 50 m (or 20 m on the Atlantic coast, where the continental shelf is smoother and less steep). Areas where inaccuracies due to these bathymetric concerns are most prevalent are blanked out in the GIS.

Pmax is the basis for the theoretical resource shown in the left column of Figure 1-1. , Garrett and Cummins, 2007 and 2008). 22gρaQmax (1) where g is gravity, a is tidal amplitude (the height of high tide above mean sea level), and Qmax is the maximum volume flux into a bay in the natural state without turbines (Garrett and Cummins, 2008). Pmax increases with the tidal amplitude, a, and the surface area of the bay. 28 ft) would require more than 300 square kilometers (over 110 square miles) to produce 100 MW as an absolute maximum.

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