Introduction to Exploration Economics by R. E. Megill

By R. E. Megill

Covers every little thing from minimal expense of go back to laptop courses for fiscal overview. contains a convenient thesaurus and checklist of acronyms.

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The pressure difference may be across a component such as a bean (or choke) or it ~ . 37 SAFETY SYSTEMS CRITERIA Fig. 1 Basic system logic pq Pressure Sensing - P Velocity Sensing - AP Fig. 2 Directcontrolledsafety valve types may be relative to a fixed comparison pressure such as a charged chamber or atmospheric pressure. Pressure is sensed as an indirect indicator of a malfunction. It may be the alarm condition for high pressure, when high pressure tends to exceed the capability of the vessels which hold it.

If the flow line segment is not rated to hold SITP, a relief valve (PSV) and high pressure sensor (PSH) should be used. I Production Test _ IT TSE PSHL Relief Fig. 5 Header manifold A high pressure sensor should be used on any flow line segment which is downstream of the choke, regardless of the pressure rating. This is to guard against pressure buildup due to freezing or a stuck flow control valve. But the relief valve is not needed if the flow line is strong enough to hold SITP. If the flow line length is less than 10ft from the surface safety valve (SSV), then no low pressure sensor (PSL) is needed, according to API RP14-C.

Chokes may be adjustable or positive (fixed). Adjustable chokes are very rugged needle valves, or a turret arrangement of positive chokes. Positive chokes have replaceable orifices of very hard material such as tungsten carbide or alumina ceramic. Or, in non-sand-producing wells, the orifice may be steel, but the orifice holes are very long in order to reduce wear for long life. Basic dimensional, material, and performance features for wellhead equipment are described in API Spec. 6A (Fig. 4). The pressure ratings of wellhead equipment are standardized.

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