By M.D. Fulton Roberts
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The incidence is approximately 76 per cent Jk a and 74 per cent. J k \ KIDD New blood groups are being discovered astonishingly frequently. Some are so rare that no examples are found outside the families of the patients in whom they were first discovered. Others, after a period of independent existence, are shown to be related to one of the existing systems. Some recently discovered antigens whose progress may be worth watching are Wr a , Di a , Yt a , Vel and Js°. CHAPTER VII THE MNS SYSTEM IT is at this stage that the reader may appreciate the decision to present a summary of knowledge of human blood groups in the order that has been selected.
Two of these, Hunter (Hu) and Henshaw (He) are more common in negroes than in white people and seem to be associated closely with N, and in the case of He, with S as well. The other two, Mia and Vw, are closely associated with each other as well as with MN and Ss. Of the latest, Vr, little is yet known. This system is of very minor interest clinically, but it does illustrate how confused blood group notation may 50 HUMAN BLOOD GROUPS become. In 1927 it seemed as though the whole topic had been finished by the demonstration of the two alleles M and N ; and for twenty years this view, based on simple agglutination reactions, was not assailed by any newlyaccruing evidence.
Without X (either in the homozygous or heterozygous state) a person cannot develop the B antigen on his cells or in his secretions, despite his having received the B gene. Without Y, the A antigen will not develop on the cells but may appear in the secretions, depending upon the presence of the Se gene which is necessary if these blood-group substances are to appear in the secretions. THE ABO SYSTEM 55 I t is as well at this stage to consider the gene 0 , a topic so obscure t h a t it is almost impossible to say anything sensible about it.