Anomie and Violence: Non-truth and Reconciliation in by John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Michael Cookson, Leah

By John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Michael Cookson, Leah Dunn

Indonesia suffered an explosion of spiritual violence, ethnic violence, separatist violence, terrorism, and violence by way of felony gangs, the safety forces and militias within the past due Nineties and early 2000s. by way of 2002 Indonesia had the worst terrorism challenge of any state. a majority of these types of violence have now fallen dramatically. How was once this complete? What drove the increase and the autumn of violence? Anomie idea is deployed to give an explanation for those advancements. surprising institutional swap on the time of the Asian monetary challenge and the autumn of President Suharto intended the foundations of the sport have been up for grabs. Valerie Braithwaite’s motivational postures thought is used to provide an explanation for the gaming of the foundations and the disengagement from authority that happened in that period. eventually resistance to Suharto laid a beginning for dedication to a revised, extra democratic, institutional order. The peacebuilding that happened was once no longer in accordance with the high-integrity truth-seeking and reconciliation that was once the normative choice of those authors. quite it was once in response to non-truth, occasionally lies, and but monstrous reconciliation. This poses a problem to restorative justice theories of peacebuilding.

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In some contexts of anomie, including many of those described in the chapters that follow, violence becomes an effective form of competition. Institutions are a society’s most embedded rules of the game. The situation in Indonesia in 1998 was that the old rules were swept away for a period. What the new rules of the game would be was up for grabs. From 2004, Mietzner (2009:377) saw a new consolidation of the polity, whereby the norms of democratic competition were clarified in new sets of legal regulations, providing alternative institutional mechanisms to resolve disputes not only between state institutions, but also between powerful civilian groups.

Commitment, we argue in Chapter 2, is the dominant posture of positive peace, of triumph 32 1. Healing a fractured transition to democracy over anomie—as in most of Indonesia today. Capitulation is the posture of negative peace and is widespread in Papua today. Few indigenous Papuans are committed to the legitimacy of the Indonesian state, but they overwhelmingly capitulate to it in the current phase of that very long conflict. Resistance to Indonesia, however, also continues to be widespread, with a huge proportion of Papuans being secret supporters of the Free Papua Movement.

Hence, when the triggering incident snapped, there were sighs and cries that ‘it’s finally started’. So if one spark had not lit the conflagration, another might have. We concluded from these Indonesian conflicts that if an effective security sector response could not succeed in dousing all the potential initial sparks, it generally could, with time and determination, extinguish the youthful rioting and inter-gang fighting that escalated from the initial incident. The fact that it often did not was a reflection on the Indonesian security sector’s anomie of the period.

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