Aquariums of Pyongyang: Ten Years in the North Korean Gulag by Chol-hwan Kang, Pierre Rigoulot

By Chol-hwan Kang, Pierre Rigoulot

North Korea is this present day one of many final bastions of hard-line Communism. Its leaders have stored a decent clutch on their one-party regime, quashing any nascent competition hobbies and sending all suspected dissidents to its brutal focus camps for "re-education." Kang Chol-hwan is the 1st survivor of 1 of those camps to flee and inform his tale to the area, documenting the intense stipulations in those gulags and offering a private perception into lifestyles in North Korea. half horror tale, half historic rfile, half memoir, half political tract, this list of 1 man's anguish offers eyewitness evidence to an ongoing sorrowful bankruptcy of contemporary history.</Div>

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S. 22 Soon, others representing a new generation of scholars, notably Samuel M. Stern (920–969) and Wilferd Madelung, published pathbreaking studies, especially on the early Ismailis and the dissident Qarmatis. Indeed, Professor Madelung masterfully summed up the current state of research on Ismaili history in his article ‘Ismaʿiliyya’, written for the new edition of The Encyclopaedia of Islam. The modern progress in the recovery and study of the Ismaili sources is well reflected in Professor Ismail K.

Abu Mansur ʿAbd al-Qahir b. Tahir al-Baghdadi, al-Farq bayn al-firaq, ed. M. Badr (Cairo, 328/90), pp. , Moslem Schisms and Sects, part II, tr. S. Halkin (Tel Aviv, 935), pp. 07–57. 4. M. Stern, ‘The “Book of the Highest Initiation” and other Anti-Ismaʿili Travesties’, in his Studies in Early Ismaʿilism (Jerusalem and Leiden, 983), pp. 56–83. 5. See especially W. Ivanow’s The Alleged Founder of Ismailism (Bombay, 946). 6. Nizam al-Mulk, Siyar al-muluk (Siyasat-nama), ed. H. /968), p. , The Book of Government; or, Rules for Kings, tr.

Abu Hanifa, the founder of the Hanafi school of Sunni law, and other major figures such as al-Ashʿari, al-Shafiʿi (d. 820) and al-Ghazali (d. ) further elaborated and consolidated this process of systematizing belief. Some of the key elements of these creeds emphasized particular perspectives on understanding the foundational beliefs common to all Muslims. Al-Ashʿari, for example, emphasized belief in the Qurʾan as Allah’s uncreated Word (in contrast to the beliefs of the Muʿtazila); he acknowledged the pre-eminent status of the Companions of the Prophet, without discriminating among them, but giving priority to the first four caliphs; he emphasized the idea of sunna, authenticated on the basis of authoritative claims of transmission related from acknowledged transmitters and constituting a consensus of Sunni 26 Ismailis in Medieval Muslim Societies scholars; and lastly, he decried ‘innovations’ in matters of belief and practice.

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