By Dan Green
Too frequently descriptions of detectors specialise in the "what" and never the "why". This quantity goals to explain how the necessities of the physics on the huge Hadron Collider (LHC) outline the detector atmosphere. In flip, the detector offerings are made to undertake to that setting. The target of LHC physics is to discover the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking. as a result of minuscule cross-sections which have to be explored, 0.1 facebook, the LHC must offer a hundred fb-1/yr, or a right away luminosity of 1034 / (cm2 sec). With a host crossing period of 25 nsec, well suited to detector speeds, there'll be 25 occasions occupying every one bunch crossing. hence the physics calls for quick, finely segmented, low noise and radiation resistant detectors which offer redundant measurements of the hardly ever produced electrons and muons. to accomplish these objectives, new floor used to be damaged in developing the A Toroidal LHC gear (ATLAS) and Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detectors within the vertex detectors, monitoring structures, calorimetry, robust magnets, muon platforms, entrance finish electronics, set off structures, and within the facts acquisition equipment used.
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Extra resources for At the Leading Edge: The ATLAS and CMS LHC Experiments
At still higher momenta the tracker resolution increases as P , so the muon system will improve the tracker muon momentum resolution, if good alignment of the muon chambers can be maintained so that the measurement remains multiple-scattering-dominated. For the generic detector no attempt is made to specify the muon system in detail as to detectors, the magnetic ﬁeld type, or the medium in which the detectors are immersed. Many diﬀerent choices are possible and defensible, and there is no consensus on the design choices.
P-stops are rings of high dose p-implants surrounding the pixels that interrupt the conducting layer. P-spray consists of a medium dose p-implantation “sprayed” without mask over the whole wafer. 5in — At the Leading Edge ... The CMS Pixel Detector Bias grid b866-ch02 49 Bias dot Aluminum p-implant Reduced p-spray Full p-spray dose Bump (in) Contact via Fig. 4. Photo of four pixel cells with moderated p-spray (left) and open p-stop design (right). The pixel size is 100 µm × 150 µm. by a factor of 2–3 (“moderated”) to improve the high voltage stability of un-irradiated devices.
B866-ch01 D. Green Fig. 22. 8 then the accuracy required is similar to that for the tracker and position resolution and alignment speciﬁcations are stringent. If the chambers are operated in the ﬂux return yoke of the solenoid, then the redundant muon momentum measurement is multiple-scattering-limited [Eq. (15)]. In that case the fractional momentum error is constant for momenta below which the alignment errors are a negligible contribution √ (27) dP/P = (Es / 2)[1/eB LX0 ]. For example, with B = 2 T in steel with an L = 2 m return yoke, the muon momentum is measured to 13%.