Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics by Adrian E. Gill

By Adrian E. Gill

During this paintings, Dr. Gill seems on the research of oceanic and atmospheric circulations. He explains how atmospheric and oceanic circulations are eventually pushed through solar power, and covers the research of saw distributions of actual amounts, together with temperature.

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S. D. 8) seems to work reasonably well. Alternative formulations are given by Liu et at. (1979). 5 The Hydrological Cycle 31 The HydrologicalCycle The fundamental importance of water in the atmosphere on the energy balance was pointed out in Chapter 1. If water vapor could only be transported by molecular diffusion, it would presumably diffuse upward until the whole atmosphere was saturated. The atmosphere is not saturated, however, because of the motion produced by radiation effects. Air is continually moving upward and downward because of convection (caused by radiation tending to heat the bottom of the atmosphere more than the top) and because of the horizontal gradients due to more radiation being received in the tropics than in the polar regions.

The regions of descending air are dry, and include in particular the desert regions (marked by X's in Fig. 2), which are found between latitudes 20" and 30". These show up as regions of high albedo over land in Fig. 3. Where the descent is over cold ocean, low nonprecipitating cloud decks (marked Y in Fig. 2) are often found. In mid-latitudes, the picture is quite different. Because of the rotation of the earth, the motion produced by the horizontal density gradients is mainly east-west, and there is relatively little meridional circulation.

The rate at which the temperature of the atmosphere decreases with height. Convection will only occur when the lapse rate exceeds a certain value. , without exchanging heat with the air outside the parcel. As such a parcel rises, the pressure falls, the parcel expands, and thus its temperature falls. The rate at which the temperature falls with height, due to expansion, is called the dry adiabatic lapse rate and has a value of about 10 K/km. If the temperature of the surroundings fell off more quickly with height, a rising parcel would find itself warmer than its surroundings, and therefore would continue to rise under its own buoyancy.

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