Envisioning Islam: Syriac Christians and the Early Muslim by Michael Philip Penn

By Michael Philip Penn

The 1st Christians to come across Islam weren't Latin-speakers from the western Mediterranean or Greek-speakers from Constantinople yet Mesopotamian Christians who spoke the Aramaic dialect of Syriac. lower than Muslim rule from the 7th century onward, Syriac Christians wrote the main huge descriptions extant of early Islam. Seldom translated and sometimes passed over from glossy ancient reconstructions, this big physique of texts finds a classy and evolving diversity of non secular and cultural exchanges that happened from the 7th to the 9th century.

The first book-length research of those earliest encounters, Envisioning Islam highlights the methods those missed texts problem the trendy scholarly narrative of early Muslim conquests, rulers, and spiritual perform. studying Syriac assets together with letters, theological tracts, medical treatises, and histories, Michael Philip Penn finds a tradition of considerable interreligious interplay within which the explicit limitations among Christianity and Islam have been extra ambiguous than specific. the variety of historical Syriac photographs of Islam, he demonstrates, revolutionizes our figuring out of the early Islamic global and demanding situations common cultural assumptions in regards to the historical past of completely adversarial Christian-Muslim kin.

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The tribes, in turn, would be defeated by an angelic host, who would reinstate the Romans. This second cycle of Roman rule would conclude with the coming of the Antichrist, the eschaton, and the Last Judgment. Pseudo-Ephrem foreshadowed the apocalyptic reactions to political events that dominated late seventh-century Syriac writings but, in this poetic apocalypse, the eschatological role of the Sons of Hagar remained relatively underdeveloped. From the perspective of PseudoEphrem, the Sons of Hagar were just one of several forerunners of the end times, and the text discussed them for only 100 of its 560 lines.

Finally, the ṭayyāyē gave them assurances and subdued [the city]. From then onward, no one [else] was killed. In the same year, they besieged ‘Dvin where many people were killed, as many as 1200 Armenians. In the year 953 [641–642], the ṭayyāyē conquered Caesarea Philippi. The year 955 [643–644]: the Roman general and patrician Valentinus came to battle the ṭayyāyē. But he became terrified of them and fled leaving [behind] all his wealth which the ṭayyāyē took. In the same year, Procopius and Theodorus went out and in great anger invaded Baṭnan of Serug.

As well as with his answers (We suffered because of our sins. God would defeat them. ). Nevertheless, the rapidly changing political environment of the late seventh century would cause slightly later authors to write very differently about these issues than John did. John ended up being wrong. The rebellion of former prisoners of war that he thought would defeat the Arabs was easily put down, Ibn al-Zubayr was defeated in Mecca, cAbd al-Malik became the sole caliph, and his descendants would control the Umayyad caliphate until 750.

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