Numerical embedded computing by Don Morgan

By Don Morgan

Mathematical algorithms are crucial for all meeting language and embedded procedure engineers who boost software program for microprocessors. This ebook describes ideas for constructing mathematical workouts - from uncomplicated multibyte multiplication to discovering roots to a Taylor sequence. All resource code is obtainable on disk in MS/PC-DOS structure.

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Numerical embedded computing

Mathematical algorithms are crucial for all meeting language and embedded approach engineers who boost software program for microprocessors. This ebook describes innovations for constructing mathematical exercises - from uncomplicated multibyte multiplication to discovering roots to a Taylor sequence. All resource code is offered on disk in MS/PC-DOS layout.

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Multiplication and Division This group comprises what are known as “arithmetic operations of the second kind,” multiplication being iterative addition and division being iterative subtraction. In the sections that follow, you’ll see several algorithms for each operation, starting with the classic methods for each. The classic algorithms, which are based on iterative addition or subtraction, may or may not be the fastest way to execute a particular operation on your target machine. 42 INTEGERS Though error checking must always be done for correct results, the errors that occur with these routines don’t have the same impact on the processor state as those involving hardware instructions.

As an example, if we add 57D and 25D on a binary machine without converting to binary, we might first store the two values in registers in the following packed format: A = 01010111B(57H) B = 00100101B(25H) We follow this with an ADD instruction (note that the carry is ignored here): add a,b with the result placed in A: A = 1111100B (7cH) Because a decimal overflow occurred in the first nibble (1100B = 12D), the auxiliary carry flag is set. Now when the DAA instruction is executed, a six is added to this nibble and the carry propagated into the next higher nibble: 1100B 0ll0B l00l0B This leaves a two as the least significant digit with a carry into the next higher position, which is the same as adding a one to that digit: 0111 (7H) 0001 (1H) 1000 (8H) 41 NUMERICAL METHODS The final result is 10000010B (82H).

Overflow. If the result of an arithmetic operation exceeds the data type meant to contain it, an overflow has occurred. This flag usually only works predictably with addition and subtraction. The overflow flag is used to indicate that the result of a signed arithmetic operation is too large for the destination operand. It will be set if, after two numbers of like sign are added or subtracted, the sign of the result changes or the carry into the MSB of an operand and the carry out don’t match. 24 NUMBERS Overflow Trap.

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