Physical Oceanography of the Dying Aral Sea by Peter O. Zavialov

By Peter O. Zavialov

Physical Oceanography of the death Aral Sea describes the heritage, current difficulty kingdom, and attainable way forward for this bizarre inland water physique from the actual oceanographic perspective. in response to quite a lot of fabric, a wide a part of which used to be released in Russian and has no longer been formerly on hand to the overseas reader, the ebook first presents an historic review of this distinctive approach, which possesses either lake and sea properties.

Next, the present actual kingdom of the lake is defined, partially in response to unique box learn and version experiments, besides the distant sensing facts, version effects and analyses extracted from contemporary literature. subsequent, e-book makes an attempt to forecast the imminent country of the Aral Sea and establish believable destiny eventualities. eventually, the booklet discusses the Aral Sea dessication viewd as part of the worldwide perspective.

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Extra resources for Physical Oceanography of the Dying Aral Sea

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6. Basic statistics for SST ( C) in different months (1949±1960). The notation  is used for the root mean square deviation. The data were collected near Barsakelmes Island in the central part of the Sea. Adapted from Bortnik and Chistyaeva (1990). Month I II III IV Mean  Max. Min. 6 28 The immediate past: A summary of the pre-desiccation state [Ch. 7. Freezing temperatures for the Aral Sea and World Ocean ( ). From Kosarev (1975). 64 together with the respective data for the World Ocean. For the salinity range characteristic of the Aral Sea, the freezing temperature varies between À0:5 C and À0:7 C.

1. The Sea is fed by two principal rivers of Central Asia, the Amu-Darya and SyrDarya with an average combined annual runo€ of about 56 km 3 (Bortnik and Chistyaeva, 1990). Amu-Darya merges into the southernmost portion of the Sea, while Syr-Darya feeds its northern part. The Amu-Darya runo€s are typically twice as large as those from Syr-Darya and the catchment basin area of the Aral Sea is almost 3 million km 3 . The population in the area is above 20 million. The Sea belongs to Uzbekistan (southern part) and Kazakhstan (northern part), and these two republics, which belonged to the former Soviet Union, have been independent states since 1991.

1 C. In autumn and early winter, surface cooling results in unstable density strati®cation in the upper portion of the water column and, consequently, convection onset. This thermal convection progresses until the surface cools down to the maximum density temperature. Then, under continuing cooling, the upper layer becomes stably strati®ed again, which leads to an accelerated decrease of surface temperature. As soon as the temperature attains freezing point, the salt released in the upper layer, because of the ice formation, triggers haline convection which continues until January±February, as long as the ice grows.

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