By Emory Upton
The armiesof Asia and Europe, embracing legit stories at the armies of Japan, China, India, Persia, Italy, Russia, Austria, Germany, France, and England, observed by way of letters descriptive of a trip from Japan to the Caucasus.Справочник по армиям Европы и Азии по состоянию 1878 г. Общий состав, структура ВС, подразделения и звания.
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The bloody wars which for centuries have ravaged the empire have been prolonged for want of a well-organized and The soldiers, composed of the lowest class disciplined army. of society, have been held in contempt, and, when called upon met the disaffected on equal if have and overcome terms, spread fear and demoralization in to quiet disorders, have frequently own ranks. Encouraged by first successes, civil wars have alternately revived and languished until the Government by a supreme effort has brought them to a close, only to be followed by wholesale executions and slaughter.
In the other languages 1,500 " Degrees of Honor are accorded for attaining the highest PROBATION FOR STAFF EMPLOYMENT. 43 Candidates who proficiency in Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit. obtain this honor in Arabic and Sanskrit receive a donation of 5,000 rupees ($2,500), and in Persian 4,000 rupees. They are also presented with a gold medal by the presidency in which they are serving. Abbreviations like L. , Lower Standard," " H. S. , Persian," are placed on the army list "Higher opposite to the names of all officers who have passed examina- Standard tions.
One of the great impediments to successful military operaChina is the want of good highways. Every river, every stream, every canal, for want of bridges, constitutes a barrier to the speedy march and concentration of troops. tions in Unlike the colossal power overshadowing her on the north, which found the construction of broad roads the surest means of subduing the warlike Circassians, China has thus far opposed their construction, perhaps lest they might facilitate the march of rebels upon the capital.